Gianyar is one of nine regencies or cities in Bali which has the most numerous of archeological heritage from the prehistoric to either historic times of the kingdoms periods in Bali.Many relics were found at along the river Patanu that lies between the district of Blahbatuh and Tampaksiring. An admiration of the ancient Bali, Rumphius first published a book in 1750 titled "Amboinche Reteitkamer" and also the notes of his journey with W.O.J Niurenkamp's in 1905 about the archeological sites.In the pre-historic times, found some archeological relics such as cave, stone tools, sarcophagus and some others.Those are still stored in Archaeological Museum' Purbakala" in Bedulu.
Few evidences in a very simple level have been found in the period of hunting and gathering food. In Gianyar regency, the stone tools which were specifically used in the period of hunting are stored in Gedung Arca Museum Bedulu and can be classified as perimbas ax, hood handheld, handheld chisel, shaved, and the others. The life in the period of hunting and gathering food was entirely dependent on the natural environment. They lived wandering from one place to another.
The farming period in Bali was marked by the discovery of a stone carving in a variety of sizes, belincung and plane trees. These tools were not found as an archeological relics, but were of a loose discovery found in the area Payangan. In this farming period, people have started to leave the hunting period. People began to settle down and get to know the irrigation system, subak.The inscription of Tengkulak in the government of Marakata (1023) mentioned the term amabaki or cutting forests down, amaluku or plowing, atanema (planting), amaum (weeding),ahani or harvesting rice, anatu or pounding rice.This inscription has confirmed that subak has been known as one of the traditional organizations in the farming life in Bali
People's lives in this period have had strong foundations compared to the past. Smithery period was characterized by a rapid of the technological advances of metallurgy, i.e. the findings of metal ores and metal melting way to serve varieties of objects. Number of objects made of bronze have been found in the area as a result of amazing work and high creativity. One of the famous found objects from this period is the bronze, Nekara which is still saved and sanctified by the people in the temple Penataran Sasih, Pejeng.
HISTORY PERIOD AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE
In this period, Bali has already entered the era of history, with the discovery of clay stupikas around the village of Pejeng, Bedulu, and Pura Pegulingan Basangambu Manukaya in Basangambu village, Tampaksiring in 700 Saka (778 M). This was the time when the written stone inscriptions and Buddhist Mantram stamp found dating from 804 Saka or 882 (8th century). The existing heritages are closely related to the development of several dynasties of ancient Balinese kings like Singamandewa dynasty, the ruling dynasty of Warmadewa from the 8th to the 14th century following the influence of the kingdom of Majapahit to Bali.